The fabric used in this tutorial is courtesy of Lanificio di Sordevolo, and was woven for Bogner.

Most weavers would like to see a fabric simulation before weaving. Some are commission weavers, and do not have a CAD, or have one with a very limited simulation capacity. All they have is a jacquard file, which they need to weave. In this tutorial, we will teach you, how to make a fabric simulation from the jacquard cards. It even works in the demo version of ArahWeave, and you can save the fabric simulation as JPEG image. So download a demo and give it a try!

You can load the card into ArahWeave from Card browser (Weave > Load cards), which diplays card files as image thumbnails, or simply drag and drop the file icon from file mager to ArahWeave icon on your Desktop.

If you still use floppy disk, insert floppy and choose Weave > Read Jacquard floppy. When computer finishes reading the files from the floppy, ArahWeave will ask you to insert the next floppy. If the file is only on one floppy, or you have read in all the floppies, click Cancel, and file selection box will appear. You can see that the name of file is sample.jc5 and we can conclude that it is written in Stäubli jc5 format. Select the file, and ArahWeave will automatically detect the file format and load it.

fabric simulation from jacquard cards

With double click you load the file, and select Weave > Edit to view it in the weave editor. Now you have jacquard data read in ArahWeave as the weave. The software can read and correctly write the weft change pattern; you just have to specify the position of the weft change on the hooks. In Weave editor choose Jacquard > Guess weft change. Type the Position (starting point of weft change hooks) and Length (number of weft change hooks) in the Guess weft change dialog box, and click OK. It is easy to read the number of warp/weft position which you are interested in, since it is interactively displayed on the right top edge of the weave editor, as you move the mouse.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

You can notice changed weft pattern at the left side of the weave editor, after it has been read from the cards.
Next to the weft change, there is the regulator (warp motion) information. Choose Jacquard > Guess regulator, enter the Position of the regulator hook (25), and click OK.
fabric simulation from jacquard cards

The weaving software writes the regulator pattern in the Regulator field, and displays it in the Information window.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

Then you should remove the empty hooks, selvedges and weft change, since you will need just the weave for fabric simulation. Choose Jacquard > Remove extra warps/wefts. The weaving software will remove empty hooks. Then choose Jacquard > Remove selvedges. Selvedges will be removed, but also any short repeating pattern in the full height of the weave. Simple weft change patterns like the one in our example will also be removed as a consequence. Otherwise you should remove it manually by moving the weave to the left to the first pattern hook, and changing the weave size appropriately.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

The Information window shows the number of removed hooks.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

We have reached one of the milestones, since weave editor contains just the jacquard weave. To get the correct simulation, you also need to set colors, yarn size, density and warp pattern, while weft pattern has been already written by ArahWeave.
Select Fabric > Yarns to set yarn size and twists in yarn editor. Note that you must first click on the yarn, which you want to edit; selected yarn is indicated by a black and white rectangle. In the picture, warp yarn A is selected. If your yarns have the same properties (besides color), your can copy yarn properties to other colors by pointing to the desired yarn and clicking the right mouse button.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

Choose the appropriate colors in Fabric > Colors. In the area above letters with warp and weft yarn indication, we have loaded PANTONE® FASHION + HOME Color System colors. Use left mouse button to select the desired color, and right to copy it to the yarn.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

Then you should edit the warp pattern. In the main window choose Fabric > Thread pattern. In the Edit warp and weft pattern dialog box type the warp pattern. The warp pattern is 1A 1B for our example - it means that two different warp threads (ends) are repeated across the full fabric width. Then click OK. You will get the fabric in real colors, but not the correct density - the Integer view mode just shows the weave in warp/weft colors. One pixel (point on the screen) is used to simulate one thread. If you choose a bigger zoom (200%, 300%) two or more pixels are used for one thread.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

To set the correct density of warp and weft, select Fabric > Density and type in your values. If you have set the fabric technical data (width, number of threads...), then just check the Density from technical data check box. You have to use Density from technical data, if the fabric is using regulator or denting, to achieve variable density, otherwise the fabric will be simulated just with one density.
ArahWeave reading jacquard cards

To get simulation of the fabric, choose one of the Simulation views.
ArahWeave fabric simulation

The last step is printing of the fabric simulation on the paper. Choose Files > Print fabric to printer. In the dialog box set the Print size, select whether you want to have Title, Density, Warp/weft pattern and Yarns on the printout and click OK.
Arah Weave weaving software

The printed simulation would look something like this.
ArahWeave printed fabric simulation

How to make a fabric simulation from a jacquard floppy: The Fast Way

To avoid manual steps, you can choose a different way, but you will need to create the loom layout file. Choose Weave > Save cards for productions from the main ArahWeave window. First you need to enter the whole number of hooks (2688). To choose the the type of the field (hooks function), click the field button (it is labeled Empty hook by default) and select the function (type) from the drop down menu. In the Length field enter the number of hooks for that function. You can have up to 45 equal fields, into which you can enter your loom layout: the type of the field, and its length (number of hooks).
For the sample from this tutorial, the loom layout looks like this:
ArahWeave jacquard cards

Then choose Change > Extract data using loom layout from the Save cards for production window. If the settings are correct, you get all the extraction steps from the above with one mouse click. Now you can continue directly with settings of the simulation parameters.

If you have more cards, which correspond to the same loom layout, you can use the Automatic extract function from the Change menu.
ArahWeave weaving software

When you load a jacquard card file from the Card browser, ArahWeave will automatically extract the weave data from the card. Window Save cards for production does not need to be open. Fix the simulation, save the fabric, and load another card... It can't get much easier than this. Or maybe it can! If you are a normal weaver with limited number of warps, you can previously save all the warps you use, and then load the warp after extracting the cards. So you do not need to set the warp yarns, colors, density, total number of threads in warp, ... every time.

Our bag of tricks is not yet empty, we have special tools for converting 10.000 jacquard files into fabric simulation in automatic way. Yes, we already did it. But we do not want to try your patience any longer, just so that you know who to call, if you would ever need that.

First you have to make the image for the label. Label will contain the logo with the name of the company. You can scan the business card to get the logo of the company. Load the scanned image in ArahPaint software. Then press the rectangular selection icon ArahPaint icon and select the area of the logo with mouse. Then activate function Image > Crop to selection.
scan picture

First you have to convert the image mode to indexed color mode by choosing Colors > Covert > 24->8. Then reduce number ob colors to 3. Choose Color > Reduce number of colors. By holding the Shift key on keyboard, the mouse pointer will turn into a color picker tool. Click inside the red, white and black area in the image, to select these three colors and press OK. Make sure all the pixels in the letters are black and all the pixels in the circle are red, otherwise manually correct them.
ArahPaint reduce colors

Than rotate the image for 90 degrees. The label is going to be woven vertically.

image resize

.

The size of the image should be calculated with respect of warp and weft density. Go to View > Repeat dimensions and enter the correct density. In our case it is 90 ends/cm in warp and 50 picks/cm in weft.

fabric density

 

We would like that the number of warps in our label (without selvedges) is 144 threads. That means the width of the image is 144 px. Go to Image > Resize image, enter 144 as new width and click on the density button. The program will calculate the height according to the fabric density, it is 391. Correct the number so that it is divisible with the number of wefts you intend to use. We will use three wefts, so the correct number is 390 px in height.

 

This is how our image of the label looks. It is ready for jacquard conversion.
making a label with ArahWeave software for weaving

 

Open ArahWeave CAD software for weaving. Choose Weave > Jacquard conversion. A new window will open. Load the image from Images > Browse.. From the bottom left corner select Extra wefts as the type of the conversion. Set System to 3 since we will use three different wefts in this label: one for the ground, and two for extra wefts. Set Skip face to 3. This means that the program will not insert a weave points if the point would be closer than three threads to the inner border of the extra weft effect, in our case black letters and red circle. Set Skip back to 2. This means that weave points will not be inserted if the points are closer than two points to the outer border of the letters or circle. Set Clear length to 5. This means that weave points will not be inserted where the length of the warp effect is less than 5. We will get cleaner effects this way.
Now you have to load a proper weave for each weft: for ground weft use plain weave, for three extra wefts use Satin 8. For attachment wefts on the back side of the label you can use Satin 32. To enter weaves, double click inside the weave area and use shortcuts to insert weaves (2 = plain weave, 8 = satin 8). To make a satin 32, first enter a satin 8 and than enlarge it by pressing CTRL + 2.
label with ArahWeave

After you have loaded all weaves and set all the parameters, press OK and you will get the jacquard weave. Program will multiply the weft size by 3, but will be smart enough not to insert weaves where they are not necessary. For this reason, we need to remove the unneeded wefts, which are floating across the full width of the fabric. Press the button Remove extra warps/wefts. At this point you will arrive at the final size of weave. The program automatically writes the correct weft pattern and puts the regulator on the right positions.

label with ArahWeave

Now you have to prepare your sample for weaving. In Weave > Save cards for production you have to insert the layout according to your jacquard and loom. Be sure to set the correct number of hooks and Weft bytes with regulator on correct bit, according to the specifications of your loom.

To get the simulation, you have to enable Set weaving density > Density from technical data and you have to set the correct parameters in Thread pattern > Consumption.

ArahWeave fabric simulation

ArahWeave software for weaving not only makes the fabric simulation image, now in can also wrinkle it for you. The software allows you to load any image and use it as a gray wrinkle map over the fabric. Program will automatically figure out the base gray level of the loaded picture, and will make the fabric both lighter and darker. So the overall colors should not change too much. ArahWeave's finishing simulation works in sequence, so you can have both overprint and wrinkles.
You can use the wrinkle function to make a seersucker simulation. Seersucker is a lightweight fabric made of cotton or artificial fibers with crinkled stripes, made by weaving some of the warp threads slack, and others tight. The result is a unique, puckered effect. You need two warp beams for that, since the warp consumption on straight and wrinkled areas will be different. But with chemical treatment, for example printing with caustic soda, you can make a cheaper imitations of the "real" seersucker.

So how do you do you do this in ArahWeave? Create or load a fabric, to which you want to apply the seersucker look. Than choose Fabric > Simulation. Click the Wrinkle tab.
seersucker

To load the texture, click the Browse button.
seersucker

Double click the image icon to load it into the simulation window. If the image is not gray-scale, the weaving software will automatically converted it to gray-scale. As in overprint, you can specify the Zoom and Strength (intensity) levels. You can also specify the non wrinkable yarns, which allows you to make a realistic seersucker simulations. Wrinkle works differently from overprint, as it takes the color from underlying fabric, and modifies its lightness according to the wrinkle picture/texture.
seersucker

To make the simulation even more realistic, you can set the Displacement parameter, which will curve the threads according to the wrinkle texture.
seersucker

In the shirting gallery, you can check some examples of ArahWeave's seersucker simulations.
Wikipedia has an interesting article on the seersucker fabric, if you want to know more about its history.

We all know the market went crazy. Making a nice quality fabric is not enough. You need to distinguish yourself from the competition. You must make a fabric that is difficult to copy. That looks special. A weaver must call for help from other professions. In this tutorial, we will use several techniques of finishing on fabric simulation.

Overprint

You can simulate printing over a woven fabric in ArahWeave. Open ArahWeave and load (or create) a fabric, in which you want to use the overprint function. Choose Fabric > Simulation. In the Simulation window click the Overprint tab.
overprint

To load the image (usually the image, that is used for screen printing), click the Browse button, and load the image into Simulation window. The image should be in the indexed (8 bits per pixel) mode.
overprint

The software draws the image over fabric, as if it was printed. With Zoom you can control the size of the overprint image. Strength controls the color strength (transparency) of the overprint (at 100% it covers the fabric completely). With transparency you specify the color in the image, which is not printed. On the sample it is white; please note that the counting starts with 0 and not 1 - so the first color in the image is marked as 0 and it is also the most popular color in the image.
overprint

The pictures below demonstrates the same image printed at different Strength levels: 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40%.
overprint

The option Overprint fabric transparency is useful for simulation of printing over transparent fabrics, like for example curtains. The holes between threads are covered or not depending on the type of dyes. If the option is switched on, the software draws the overprint image on the space between yarns. The image on the left shows overprint without Overprint fabric transparency, while on the right it is switched on.
overprint

Printed warp, Ikat, Chiné simulation

The overprint simulation window in the software has some other options, which allow you to simulate even more exotic stuff. First of the three advanced functions in the overprint window gives you the possibility to specify which yarns in the fabric are not printable. This allows simulation of fabrics with printed warp, ikat fabrics (warp, weft, or both), and even fabrics, which are made from yarns with different fiber composition and thus different dye affinity.
The image below illustrates a fabric with unprintable weft color a (actually the whole weft, since there is only one yarn color in the weft), and warp yarn b.
overprint

The Ikat option for warp and weft allows you to simulate the overprint image distortion (feathered edges of the pattern), which is characteristic of techniques, where the warp, weft or both are tie-dyed or printed with a pattern before weaving, to create a design on the finished fabric. Ikat is also called kasuri in Japanese.
In ArahWeave's simulation, the value of ikat effect is specified as the number of pixels of the printed image. The higher the value, the bigger the distortion.
overprint

A closer look at the previous simulation shows you how does ArahWeave make the chiné simulation. On the sample the ikat value is set to 12 in the warp direction - it means that the borders of print will vary randomly from 0 to 12 pixels.
overprint

The Ikat simulation works best in the combination with the Dye absorption function. It determines the absorption of dye over the edges of the printed motifs. This depends on the yarn material (fiber), type of dyes and printing technique. It can be set independently for warp or weft, and it is expressed in tenth of a millimeter.
The left image below shows a simulation with Dye absorption set to 0, while the simulation on the right was generated with Dye absorption set to 35.
overprint

Simple warp ikat plaid
The following images shows you the setup for warp ikat, where only the warp yarn with letter c was printed (or dyed / painted) prior to weaving. So all the other yarns are set to be unprintable. As you can see, the appropriate parameters for warp ikat offset and dye absorption were set. These are fully interactive and visual, so you can change them until you get the desired effect.
overprint

Simple weft ikat plaid
Weft ikat is more difficult to make, since the start of each pick (weft yarn) must be aligned to the edge of the fabric. Usually, this is impossible in industrial weaving, due to the nature of weft insertion. But a skilled handweaver can do it.
overprint

This is the warp and weft pattern for the above fabric simulation.
overprint

And these are the settings for the above weft ikat. Only the weft letter d is left unprintable. The other parameters are similar as for the warp ikat, just that they are applied to the weft.
overprint

Simulation of embroidery

The Overprint function is also useful for simulation of embroidery. Obviously, ArahWeave is not a CAD intended for the embroidery, so you need to scan your embroidered design (or import the simulation from another CAD). You just need to set the Strength to 100% and Overprint fabric transparency should be on. The picture below shows a simulation of an embroidery over a plaid fabric.
overprint

We have made some steps beyond weaving, so the weaver can show to her customers the final look. Actually, several of Arahne's customers are both weavers and printers. So they use their actual print screens to make the simulation, and get the customer's approval prior to "destroying" the fabric.

In this tutorial, we will explain how to make a complex extra weft (lance) pattern. Let us start with some historical remarks.

We are using an image from a pattern source-book classic: Friderich Fischbach "Ornamente der Gewebe", first published around 1883, color plate number 10.
extra wefts fabric
Fiscbach says that it is a Sicilian-Arabic pattern from 12th century. Curiously, the same pattern appears in M. Dupont-Auberville "L'Ornament des Tissus", first published in Paris in 1877.
extra wefts fabric
Dupont-Auberville claims that the pattern is from 13th century, Sicilian made after genuine Persian models. It is featured on the top of color plate IX.

We have reproduced two details for your enjoyment. It seems that the top (Fiscbach) version is closer to "original", since on the bottom (Auberville) picture, the lion seems to have mutated into a goat, and we have lost the fancy junction between the circles. We use this sample to remind ourselves of a couple of things: In textile design, the notion of original is quite shady - copying, borrowing, stealing - is the norm, not the exception. But you can not copy the quality, at least not without a considerable expense. Let us hope to see the return of the days, when customers were able to recognize the quality, and were not just blindly following brand names, thus demonstrating their ignorance. Secondly, we see that patterns are able to spread across cultures like a virus. The stylized Arabic script was fashionable even at the height of the crusades. In those times, Europeans were the poor peasants, trying to copy the "superior cultures" of the East. And we have never paid any royalties ;-)

End of historical remarks.

We will develop this pattern first as a simple damask, then we will embellish it with colorful extra wefts. We start with a scanned image, and we reduce the number of colors to just two. The size of the image should be calculated with respect of warp and weft density and desired size of the design. We will use warp density of 64 ends/cm and 34 picks/cm for weft.
extra wefts fabric

We use just two colors for damask: one for warp and the other for weft effect. Besides, it is also easier and faster to draw a jacquard image with only two colors. If you need more, you can use fill with color tool in ArahPaint, and you have new arrangement in a few seconds. We will not cover the drawing and cleaning up of the scanned image, you should be able to do this by now. Open ArahWeave program. Choose Weave > Jacquard conversion. Load the image in Jacquard conversion window in Images > Load image. Select a suitable weave for each color and press OK.
extra wefts fabric

The program will replace colors with selected weaves: it will generate a jacquard weave. You get a simple fabric with two weaves: warp and weft satin effect.
extra wefts fabric

And here is the simulation...
extra wefts fabric

If you decide that this fabric is too dull, you can make it more interesting by using extra wefts. This means that we use several wefts, but only on places, where we need them for the color effect. This technique requires the use of regulator or variable weft density. When the regulator is active, the warp beam does not advance, and we effectively double the weft density on that point of the fabric. Of course, the weaves must also be appropriate - we must "force" the picks to go on top of each other by using appropriate weaves. For example, weft satin for the pick that needs to be on the top, and warp satin for the pick that needs to be on the back. If you will use plain weave for both picks, the threads will compete for space on the top, and you will not be able to weave with the desired density.

Open ArahPaint, load the image, select "fill with color" tool, and change color in picture details, which should have a different color than the ground. Then load the image in Jacquard conversion window. Select Extra wefts as the type of conversion; it is an option button on the left bottom of the window. Set System to 3 since we will use three different wefts in this fabric: one for ground, and two for the red and yellow extra wefts. You have to load three weaves for every color in image - one for every weft. We will use same weaves as in previous fabric. For attachment wefts on the back side of the fabric, you should choose a weave with longer floats than basic weft weave. Satin 40 will work well, since we have a high density in warp. We also need to explain the meaning of the three weaves for each color: In the first row we have the weaves for the ground weft, the next row shows first extra weft weaves, and the last one shows second extra weft weaves.
extra wefts fabric

After you have loaded all weaves and set all the parameters, click OK and you will get the full jacquard weave. Program will multiply the weft size by 3, but will be smart enough not to insert weaves where they are not necessary. For this reason, we need to remove the unneeded wefts, which are floating across the full width of the fabric. The function is in Weave > Edit > Jacquard > Remove extra warps/wefts (or click icon in the Jacquard conversion window. At this point you will arrive at the final size of weave. The program automatically writes the correct weft pattern and puts the regulator on the appropriate positions.
extra wefts fabric

Usually, if your weave selection is good, you will not have to spend a lot of time correcting the long floats. Remember that warp long floats across wefts with regulator will not have the same length as the ones across the ground fabric without any extra wefts.

Now you have fabric with two extra wefts, yellow and red. To make even fancier fabric, you can replace the solid ground weft with a more complex weft pattern. You can change weft pattern by writing new pattern in Edit warp and weft pattern window. The other way is to select a weft from Edit warp and weft pattern and draw it in fabric with left mouse button. As you click it, you will see that the mouse pointer color and shape will change to small shuttle. Then just click in the fabric and draw by pressing left mouse button. If you keep it pressed, it will continue to draw. The fabric will change in real time and the "complicated" warp or weft pattern will be written automatically. You can use the same procedure for changing warp, the only difference is, that the mouse pointer will change to yarn cone.
extra wefts fabric

To avoid streaking because of uneven yarn, you can divide ground weft (a) across several cones. After choosing Tools > Split/merge weft, the window with this title will pop up. If you enter yarns adef, and only yarn a is used in the fabric, then weft pattern will be rewritten, so that yarn a will be split evenly among yarns a, d, e, f. You can use this function for other wefts too.
extra wefts fabric

If you want to have yarns sorted in order, so that the first yarn in the fabric is marked with a, second with b etc., choose Tools > Sort from the Edit warp and weft pattern window. The yarns will change the positions and the warp/weft pattern will be automatically re-written.
extra wefts fabric

To get the simulation, you have to enable Set weaving density > Density from technical data and you have to set the correct parameters in Thread pattern > Consumption.
extra wefts fabric

To check the fabric on the back side activate function Fabric > Reverse.
extra wefts fabric

Now you have to prepare your sample for weaving. In Weave > Save cards for production you have to insert the layout according to your jacquard and loom. Be sure to set the correct number of hooks and Weft bytes with regulator on correct bit, according to the specifications of your loom.
extra wefts fabric

Before saving you can check cards preview, if everything is on correct places. We use color preview in this case, so that we can understand it more easily. At the end of file on gray background you can see the weft change and regulator on the positions as we have defined them in Save cards for production window. Note that we have split the ivory ground weft into a,b,c,d, the yellow into f,and g, while the red is using only one weft selector on e. The regulator is on three consecutive points, as requested by Grosse specifications. Your loom may require a different layout. Careful observers will note another little trick - the selvedge is elongated where the regulator is active: in this way we are sure that the extra wefts will enter in selvedge.
extra wefts fabric

That's all folks!